The Cape Verdian government has approved the creation of two new water and sanitation bodies. On 30 July 2013, parliament passed a bill for the establishment of the national water and sanitation council CNAS (Conselho Nacional de Água e Saneamento) , and the following day it agreed to set up the national water and sanitation agency ANAS (Agência Nacional de Água e Saneamento) .
Cape Verde WASH Institutional Model. Source: MCC, p. 9 .
The reform of the Cape Verdian water and sanitation sector is being supported by the US Millennium Challenge Corporation (MCC) . In February 2012 the MCC signed a second five-year compact with the government of Cape Verde, which focuses on reforming the water and sanitation sector and the land management sector.
The aim of the US$ 41.1 million Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene Project (WASH Project) of the MCC Cape Verde Compact II is to improve sector performance by:
- reforming national policy and regulatory institutions (National Institutional and Regulatory Reform Activity)
- transforming inefficient utilities into independent corporate entities operating on a commercial basis (Utility Reform Activity), and
- improving the quality and reach of water and sanitation infrastructure (Infrastructure Grant Facility)
According to AfriqueJet news , the national water and sanitation council CNAS is comprised of the following members:
- a government member responsible for the water and sanitation sector
- representatives of members of the executive body responsible for Finance, Planning, Agriculture, Energy, Economy, Sea, Health, Infrastructure and Local authorities.
- the chairman of the national water and sanitation agency ANAS
- the national association of city councils in Cape Verde
- the Chambers of Commerce and Services
- the Platform of non-governmental organizations
- associations linked to the problems of social integration and gender equality
- the consumers association
- the Chamber of Tourism
 Pana, Water and sanitation council in Cape Verde, AfriqueJet, 30 Jul 2013
 Parlamento: Aprovado diploma que cria a Agência Nacional de Água e Saneamento, Expresso das Ilhas, 30 Jul 2013
. MCC, [undated]. Desenho do novo quadro institucional do sector de água e saneamento : design of new WASH national institutional environment. Available at: http://washurl.net/aad6c4
 MCC - Cape Verde Compact II [English] – MCA-Cabo Verde II [Portuguese]
Posted in Cape Verde, Governance, Policies & legislation, Sanitation, Water supply
Tagged Agência Nacional de Água e Saneamento, Cape Verde Compact II, Conselho Nacional de Água e Saneamento, institutional framework, local support, Millennium Challenge Corporation, National Water and Sanitation Council, source_publish
Robel Lambisso WASH Director (left) and MWA Chair at World Vision, Greig Jansen (right). Photo: newbusinessethiopia.com
The Coca-Cola Africa Foundation (TCCAF) and its partners have launched the Replenish Africa Initiative’s (RAIN) Multiple Use Water Improvements project in Ethiopia. This one-year project will benefit 73,400 rural citizens, including 22,000 school children living in seven rural woredas (districts) of three Ethiopian regions. It will support water supply improvements and multiple uses of water (MUS); improve water access, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) in schools, institutions, and households; and empower women through water-related entrepreneurship.
TCCAF is providing US$ 4 million to the project, which is being implemented in partnership with the Conrad N. Hilton Foundation (CNHF) and Millennium Water Alliance (MWA), Catholic Relief Services (CRS), WaterAid and World Vision. The project builds on the MWA’s existing US$ 13 million CNHF programme that is being implemented in 25 woredas in 4 regions.
The TCCAF project can benefit from the related Multiple Use Services through Rainwater Harvesting (MUStRAIN) pilot project (2011-2013) in Dire Dawa. Funded through the Dutch Partners for Water programme, this project focuses on the exploitation of sand rivers for domestic, livestock and small-scale irrigation through integrated approaches that take account of multiple water needs. The Amsterdam-based RAIN Foundation is implementing this pilot project in partnership with the IRC International Water and Sanitation Centre, RiPPLE Ethiopia, the Hararghe Catholic Secretariat (HCS) and other local stakeholders.
The launch of the TCCAF RAIN Multiple Use Water Improvements project took place on 12 April 2013 in Addis Ababa, on the sidelines of IRC’s Monitoring Sustainable WASH Service Delivery symposium.
The Coca-Cola Africa Foundation’s 6-year RAIN programme (2010-2015) aims to provide at least 2 million Africans with access to clean water by 2015. The US$ 30 million that Coca-Cola has committed towards RAIN seems generous but amounts to just 0.75% of the company’s US$ 4 billion annual budget for marketing in 2013 and less than 7% of its US$ 440 million sponsorship deal with FIFA (2005-2012).
- Counting how many Ethiopians lack decent water and sanitation, IRC, 08 Apr 2013
- Ethiopia: rush to achieve water and sanitation for all by 2015, E-Source, 24 Jul 2012
Related web sites:
Source: MWA, 12 Apr 2013 ; New Business Ethiopia, 13 Apr 2013
Posted in Ethiopia, Financing, Sanitation, Water and livelihoods, Water supply
Tagged Coca-Cola Africa Foundation, finance, IRC International Water and Sanitation Centre, Millennium Water Alliance, Multiple Use Water Improvements project, multiple use water services, MUStRAIN, RAIN Foundation, source_publish
Liberia will need to bridge a US$ 450 million funding gap to achieve the water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) targets that it set for itself in 2017.
Liberia unveiled a five-year US$ 600 million investment plan to rebuild its WASH sector on 7 February 2013. The sector is still recovering from decades of civil war. However, only US$ 150 million of the required amount is covered by existing support from development partners. A large part of remaining US$ 450 million will need to come from user payments for urban WASH services.
Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam. Photo: Salini Costruttori
Egypt fears a significant reduction in its share of water from the Nile when the Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam is completed in 2015. Ethiopia says its neighbour’s share of water is not in danger. An international panel of experts is due to deliver a report on the dam’s impact in May 2013.
A new book  published by the CGIAR Challenge Program on Water and Food suggests there is enough water in the Nile for all 10 countries it flows through, as long as sound pro-poor water management policies are implemented.
The Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam will become Africa’s largest hydroelectric project, turning Ethiopia, with the help of Chinese funding, into a major regional exporter of electricity. A 2010 Wikileaks report revealed that Egypt and Sudan were taking drastic precautions to protect their share of Nile waters. The two countries were building an airbase in Sudan to launch attacks on Ethiopian dams should negotiations over water rights fail.
While Egypt and Sudan are members of the Nile Basin Initiative (NBI) partnership, they have refused to sign the Cooperative Framework Agreement (CFA) drafted in 2010. Both countries are reluctant to give up their rights to the bulk of the Nile’s water that they were awarded in colonial treaties.
 Bekele, S., Smakhtin, V., Molden, D. and Peden, D. (eds.), 2012. The Nile River Basin: Water, agriculture, governance and livelihoods. UK: Routledge. Order online: www.routledge.com/books/details/9781849712835
Related web sites:
- Water: Enough in the Nile to share, little to waste, IRIN, 16 Nov 2012
- Hannah Waddilove, Cross-border resource management: How do the Nile countries fare?, This is Africa, 15 Nov 2012
Posted in Ethiopia, Policies & legislation, Sudan, Water resources management
Tagged Egypt, Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam, large dams, Nile Basin countries, Nile Basin Initiative, source_publish, water conflicts, water security
Mozambique’s anti-corruption agency GCCC has arrested the former director and financial administrator of the central regional office of the government’s Water Supply Investments and Assets Fund (FIPAG).
José Duarte and Henriques Leonardo were expelled from FIPAG in mid-2011, but it apparently took over a year to compile the case against them.
Duarte is accused of creating a private water supply company, Recta, which competed with FIPAG to supply water to ships in Beira port.
The activities of Duarte and Leonardo are said to have caused FIPAG losses of 37 million meticais [US$ 1.23 million].
The IRC International Water and Sanitation Centre is supporting Cowater Consultores Lda. to develop an appropriate anti-corruption strategy and plan with the Direcção Nacional de Águas (DNA) in Mozambique .
In April 2012, the government decreed that FIPAG would outsource water distribution to the private sector and restrict its activities financing and managing water assets .
 Developing a water anti-corruption strategy in Mozambique, IRC, 29 Nov 2011
 Mozambique: government relaunches water supply privatisation, Agencia de Informacao de Mocambique / allAfrica.com, 04 Apr 2012
- Mozambique: Former Water Supply Officials Arrested, Agencia de Informacao de Mocambique/allAfrica.com, 02 Nov 2012
- Diário de Moçambique, Gabinete de Combate à Corrupção prende ex-directores regional e financeiro do FIPAG, @Verdade, 01 Nov 2012
Kigali Eco-Toilet. Photo: Eugene Dusingizumuremyi / SuSanA
The capital city of Rwanda has turned a delay in funding into an opportunity to revise its plans so that more areas get connected to a new centralised sewerage system. Construction of a US$ 70 million wastewater treatment plant in Giti Cyinyoni, Nyarugenge District, was due to start in 2012 but has been delayed by one year.
The lack of a centralised sewage system in Kigali (pop. 1 million) has been forcing real estate developers to provide onsite sewerage systems for new housing units. Schools, hospitals and other public buildings are already required by law to have their own sewerage systems. In future all these onsite systems will be connected to the new centralised system.
In 2008, according to a survey, 80% of the people in Kigali still used pit latrines . These have proved to be not only hard to maintain, but also expensive to manage in the long run. That’s why the city council recently passed a bylaw that instructs developers to install flush toilets connected to septic tanks.
 Hohne, A., 2011. State and drivers of change of Kigali’s sanitation : a demand perspective : paper presented at the East Africa practioners workshop on pro-poor urban sanitation and hygiene, Laico Umbano Hotel, Kigali, Rwanda, March 29th – 31st 2011 . [online] The Hague, The Netherlands: IRC International Water and Sanitation Centre. Available at: <http://www.irc.nl/page/64586>
Related website: Kigali City – Water and Sanitation Programmes
- Susan Babijja, City Council reviews sewage management plan, New Times, 26 Oct 2012
- Rwanda: Kigali sewage system delayed by funds, Rwanda Express / allAfrica.com, 14 Jun 2012
- Eric Didier Karinganire, Sewage in Kigali still an issue of concern, Rwanda Focus, 09 Apr 2012
The majority of the water and sanitation projects funded by the European Union (EU) in six African countries are not sustainable says the EU’s spending watchdog. The European Commission (EC) maintains that most of the audited projects were approved before it had implemented quality control reforms.
ECA Member David Bostock presenting Special Report no 13/2012. Photo: European Union
The European Court of Auditors (ECA) reviewed 23 projects in Angola, Benin, Burkina Faso, Ghana, Nigeria and Tanzania. The projects represent an investment of over 400 million euro of which the EU provided 219 million euro. Total EU spending on water and sanitation in sub-Saharan Africa between 2001 and 2010 amounts to over 1 billion euro.
In their report , the auditors warn that the majority of projects will not be sustainable unless non-tariff revenue is ensured and institutional weaknesses are addressed. Less than half of the projects examined delivered results meeting the beneficiaries’ needs.
Posted in Angola, Benin, Burkina Faso, Financing, Monitoring & evaluation, Nigeria, Sanitation, Sustainable services, Tanzania, Water supply
Tagged European Commission, European Court of Auditors, European Union, finance, financial sustainability, institutional sustainability, irc's approach, source_publish
Lake Nokoué, Benin. Photo: Pacôme Tomètissi
Journalist Pacôme Tomètissi wants to revisit the fishing communities of Lake Nokoué in Benin to examine the sustainability of a 5 million euro EU-funded water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) project. You can support his endeavour via the crowdfunding new website Spot.Us.
In 2010 Pacôme wrote a story about WASH initiatives that were helping to stop pollution of the scenic lake. Poor sanitation was threatening the health and livelihoods of the fishing communities.
The main WASH initiative is the “Citizens together in solidarity for water on Nokoué project”. French NGO Emmaus International launched the project in 2006 in two villages of Sô-Ava district (pop. 76,000). Now the EU is funding the second phase of the community-based project (2011-2015), which aims to provide WASH services to the remaining seven villages. Besides building water and sanitation systems, the project will run a hygiene promotion campaign and train local stakeholders.
If Pacôme can raise enough funds via Spot.Us, he can go to Sô-Ava to report on the sustainability of the Lake Nokoué WASH project.
Spot.Us is a nonprofit platform that fundraises for independent reporting projects. It is part of American Public Media and the Public Insight Network.
Go to http://spot.us/pitches/1411-les-porteurs-deau and leave a comment, become an editor or fund the story!
You can find a description of the Lake Nokoué project on the Emmaus International web site and see a the short video “Nokoué: the Water Companions“.
Posted in Benin, Financing, Rural WASH, Sustainable services, Water and livelihoods, Water quality
Tagged crowdfunding, Emmaus International, finance, irc's approach, Lake Nokoué, source_publish
The Ethiopian government has set itself an ambitious target of achieving 98.5% water coverage and 100 per cent sanitation coverage by 2015. But how realistic is this target?
Currently only 54% of Ethiopia’s 83 million people has access to an improved water source and 60 per cent to sanitation, while there is a big disparity between rural and urban coverage . Some 14% of under-5 childhood deaths in 2010 was caused by diarrhoea .
Ethiopia estimates it will need US$ 3 billion to reach universal water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) coverage, of which US$ 1.5 billion has been pledged by the government and donors . Recent commitments include a US$ 150 million World Bank loan for the Urban Water Supply and Sanitation Project (UWSSP)  and a US$ 100 Chinese loan for water supply in Addis Ababa, announced in November 2011 .
From Greenpeace Africa’s infographic “Poisoned Power”
Greenpeace warns that new coal-fired power stations and coal mines will lead to a water crisis in South Africa. It calls on the government to quit coal and embrace the country’s renewable energy potential.
National utility Eskom is building two new mega power stations in Medupi and Kusile. Eskom estimates that their new dry-cooled plants will only use about a tenth of the water that conventional wet-cooled power stations require . Even so, the Kusile plant will still use 173 per cent more water per unit of electricity than windpower says Greenpeace.
Greenpeace fears water that water will get diverted away from agricultural and residential use to meet the needs of new mines. Mining will have a “drastic effect on wetlands and water systems”, Greenpeace adds.
South Africa is projected to experience a 17% gap between water supply and demand by 2030. “The impact of new coal-fired power stations on a future water crisis hasn’t been adequately taken into account”, says Melita Steele, climate and energy campaigner for Greenpeace Africa.
The World Bank Inspection Panel came to a similar conclusion when it reviewed the US$ 3.75 bank billion loan for Eslom’s Medupi plant . It said the World Bank ”did not fully consider the impacts and risks of water supply alternatives to other local water users” .
 Londiwe Buthelezi, Eskom to cut water use by 260bn litres, IOL, 25 Jun 2012
 Lisa Friedman, Auditors find World Bank skipped policy steps in approving huge South African coal plant, E$E News, 02 Dec 2011
 Inspection Panel Investigation Report South Africa : Eskom Investment Support Project (EISP), 2012. Available at: <washurl.net/7xsunk>
Related Greenpeace Africa reports:
- Groenewald, Y., 2012. Coal’s hidden water cost to South Africa. Available at: <washurl.net/712ke9>
- Steele, M., Schulz, N. and Musana,F. (eds), 2012. The Eskom factor : power politics and the electricity sector in South Africa. Available at: <washurl.net/164zzq>
Related web sites:
- Greenpeace: Eskom and SA government responsible for threatening water crisis, Greenpeace, 25 Jun 2012
- Melita Steele, The hidden water cost of South Africa’s coal addiction, Greenpeace blog, 25 Jun 2012